byDuarte, C. M., R.W. Fulweiler, C.E. Lovelock, P. Martinetto, M.I. Saunders, J.M. Pandolfi, S. Gelcich, S. Nixon
Duarte, C.M., R.W. Fulweiler, C.E. Lovelock, P. Martinetto, M.I. Saunders, J.M. Pandolfi, S. Gelcich and S. Nixon (2015) Reconsidering Ocean Calamities. BioScience, 65: 130-139.
The proliferation of a number of pressures affecting the ocean is leading to a growing concern that the state of the ocean is compromised, which is driving society into pessimism. Ocean calamities are disruptive changes to ocean ecosystems that have profound impacts and that are widespread or global in scope. However, scrutiny of ocean calamities to ensure that they can be confidently attributed to human drivers, operate at widespread or global scales, and cause severe disruptions of marine social-ecosystems shows that some of the problems fail to meet these requirements or that the evidence is equivocal. A number of biases internal and external to the scientific community contribute to perpetuating the perception of ocean calamities in the absence of robust evidence. An organized auditing of ocean calamities may deliver a more precise diagnosis of the status of the oceans, which may help to identify the most pressing problems that need be addressed to conserve a healthy ocean.